Pregnancy does not always occur in the uterine cavity, developing there until the child’s birth. Sometimes, the fertilization process can be disrupted, which endangers life and health. Naturally, there can be no question of allowing further preservation of the viability of the embryo – until the rupture of the ovary occurs, it is necessary to remove the fetal egg from the damaged organ. Ovarian ectopic pregnancy accounts for only 1% of the total fertilizations that arise outside the uterine cavity and requires immediate medical intervention.
What Are the Causes of Ovarian Pregnancy?
This clinical picture occurs when the egg does not have time to leave the ovary, released from the follicle, but is already fertilized by the sperm. Further maturation of the female germ cell occurs in its attachment to the ovary. Scientists have not identified specific changes in the female body that could become a favorable environment for developing the pathology in question. But some sources can provoke the development of ectopic pregnancy of various types.
The most common predisposing factors include:
- Past diseases of infectious origin affect the uterine tissues and inflammation of the endometrial structure.
- Colds of the organs of the reproductive system.
- The formation of obstruction of the fallopian tubes due to adhesions occurs as a result of past or existing diseases, including sexually transmitted infections.
- Consequences of previous surgery performed on the female genital organs.
- Pathological changes affect the genetic and endocrine spheres of the human body.
- Existing cyst or polycystic neoplasms.
- Congenital or acquired underdevelopment of the structure of the ovary.
- Previous medical therapy with the use of drugs with a strong effect.
- Therapy is aimed at ridding a woman of the status of infertile.
The experimental part of the study showed that in most cases, ovarian pregnancy occurred without predisposing reasons.
What Are the Symptoms of an Ectopic Pregnancy?
Initially, ovarian ectopic pregnancy signs and symptoms of a negative nature are not observed – the woman is absolutely not worried about anything. Pregnancy develops as standard and uterine, and sometimes the patient can even feel the fetus. This is due to the high properties of the ovarian tissue to stretch. However, the process is temporary and after a certain period gives rise to the following symptoms, including:
- The appearance of noticeable signs of toxicosis.
- Enlargement and weighting of the mammary glands, they become sensitive.
- There is long-term spotting discharge from the genital tract: their color may resemble rust.
- Pain syndrome of a high degree, a feature of painful sensations in their point localization – in those areas where the pregnancy occurred. First, the pain is concentrated in the lower abdomen then spreads to the lower back and large intestine.
- In the second phase of pain (when pain occurs in the lumbosacral region), the patient is dizzy weak, and the skin is pale cold to the touch. The condition is complicated by severe nausea and vomiting.
- The level of arterial pressure decreases.
- The act of defecation is painful because the fertilized ovary puts pressure on the rectum, making it impossible for the stool to pass painlessly to the anus.
- An increase in the level of general body temperature (especially fever is noted when there is a high risk of rupture of the ovary or this phenomenon has already occurred)
- Develops fainting or pre-syncope – before this stage, the patient must be hospitalized and ensure constant medical supervision with the provision of appropriate assistance in full.
The listed complex of symptoms occurs when the embryo’s size reaches those parameters in the presence of which the ovarian tissues can no longer be stretched. If an ovary ruptures, the woman will experience massive bleeding, which can be fatal. It can be not only external but also internal. In this case, the likelihood of developing a painful shock is high.
If an ovarian ectopic pregnancy is suspected, what diagnosis will help determine if it exists or not?
Since an ectopic pregnancy in the ovary has fragile signs and is a type of ectopic, it is essential to understand the danger and degree of threat to life because we are talking about massive bleeding, which almost always happens develops in this condition. In most cases, it is not possible to save the fetus since the period at which its presence is most often detected does not allow prolonging its viability – the safety of an essential organ of the female reproductive system, the ovary, is at risk.
In 95% of all clinical situations of ovarian pregnancy, diagnosis is started only after hospitalization, and sudden pain in the iliac region is a predisposing warning sign. Such a symptom is often observed four weeks after the delay in menstruation, but this period may vary for different women.
The primary stage of the examination is an examination by a gynecologist: the doctor determines the patient’s low tone of the uterus the softening of its tissues, which indicates the presence of pregnancy. A fertilized ovary can be easily palpated – it will be painful without a pronounced contour.
This is followed by additional diagnostics, the most informative of which is an ultrasound of the pelvic organs. It is important to note that a pregnancy test may eventually show two strips, indicating a pregnancy. Still, an ultrasound scan will not detect a fetal egg in the uterine cavity. A woman needs to understand that it is unnecessary to focus only on disturbing pains in one of the areas of ovary localization – this does not always indicate its fertilization but can be a manifestation of a polycystic change in this organ.
An implanted fetal egg is well visualized during the examination with a sensor, and a certain amount of fluid and blood clots in the abdominal cavity can confirm the presence of an ectopic pregnancy.
An integral part of the examination is laboratory diagnostics: the patient will have to pass urine to determine the concentration of the pregnancy hormone – hCG: this specific compound is produced only during pregnancy, and the average concentration in the blood and urine indicates that the fetus develops well. The study is repeated after 48 hours. If the indicators are identical, we are talking about the fact that the pregnancy is ectopic. Also, the patient needs to be tested for progesterone.
If there is an ovarian ectopic pregnancy, what is the treatment?
If the state of health has worsened or not all are relevant, but only 2-3 of the symptoms listed above, you need to contact a gynecologist.
There is a medical elimination of ovarian pregnancy with a specific drug – methotrexate: it allows you to keep the ovary and fallopian tube intact. The drug is administered to an intravenous or intramuscular injection to a pregnant woman. A contraindication to the use is the presence of systemic, severe diseases, including liver failure, pathology of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and individual intolerance to the drug (if you have already terminated a pregnancy through it).
When the ovarian pregnancy is long enough, there can be no talk of drug therapy and the elimination of the fetal egg with drugs: the situation is not in favor of her health, since in most cases, uterine bleeding develops and the clock counts down.
It is possible that the ovary can be saved, but the fetal egg is removed from it by a surgical method. After a partial resection of the ovary (excision of its tissues), the organ is restored over a certain period. It performs its natural functions entirely in the future, predisposing it to a new but already uterine pregnancy.