The miserable assertion that a woman needs to “eat for two” during pregnancy has long since sunk into oblivion. A pregnant woman needs to eat for one, but constantly thinking about the other, who is in the womb: that it would be easy for him/her to be born and at the same time get a healthy, beautiful mother.
The nutrition of a woman during the ordinary course of pregnancy should be complete and balanced in terms of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates – no diets with a “skew”: protein, carbohydrate, fat-free, “water,” “soup,” fruit, and vegetables.
The recommended daily caloric intake for a pregnant woman (taking into account the modern lifestyle, working regime, and physical activity) is 2500-3500 kcal per day. Of course, it is not necessary to carefully count calories, but try to stay within acceptable limits and observe the indicated approximate limits. No low-calorie diets (below 2000 kcal) and in no case systematic overeating!
In the first half of pregnancy, water consumption can be 2 liters or more (depending on the weather). In the second – no more than 1.5 liters is better to avoid swelling.
Improper nutrition is the enemy of mother and child. There is no particulart diet for pregnant women, but several general dietary recommendations are available. Foods that promote obesity and fluid retention should be avoided. Beneficial food that activates digestion and excretion of toxins.
Do not forget that the risk of cellulite increases during pregnancy, so nutrition should be complete but at the same time anti-cellulite. After childbirth, significant fat deformity can appear in the waist, hips, and abdomen – this largely depends on how much you gain during pregnancy.
From the diet of a pregnant woman should be excluded (especially with a hereditary predisposition to cellulite) or significantly reduced: fried foods, fatty meat, poultry with skin, sausages, pates, high-fat cheeses, smoked meats, pickles, high-calorie confectionery marinades, hot sauces, (especially with cream).
It is recommended to avoid food substitutes or food with “artificial” additives (colors, flavors, and flavor simulants), cook poultry without skin, and reduce the consumption of fatty dairy products. It is better to use bread from wholemeal flour, dairy products – with low-fat content, fish, poultry, meat – preferably without sauces. Raw vegetables are recommended (especially lettuce and cabbage), garden greens, legumes, fruits, grain bread, cereals on the water, fish, seafood, vegetable oils.
Alcoholic drinks during pregnancy are canceled. It is worth reducing the consumption of coffee, strong tea (both black and green), “soda” such as cola, sprite, and Fanta. Milk cream shakes, cocoa (limited), coffee glasses and sweet teas are allowed (but not snacked on cakes and pastries). Fresh fruit from market & vegitable juices can be drink.
It is imperative to reduce (but not eliminate!). The less sodium or can say salt, the less water is retained in the body and increases swelling. But at the same time, you should not severely limit the amount of fluid (unless prescribed by a doctor for kidney problems). It is better to drink not during meals but half an hour before meals or an hour after.
Fasting days are pretty acceptable, but not wholly starvation on water, not juice days, but cottage cheese (low-fat cottage cheese), vegetable, and fruit days (but not a constant fruit and vegetable diet!).
For a normal pregnancy, it is essential to have good digestion. A swollen belly does not paint the mother and interferes with the child. To avoid this, it is helpful to use decoctions of anise, dill and cumin; Gentle self-massage of the abdomen in a clockwise direction also helps. Digestive problems can be due to lethargy of the intestines, poor peristalsis. To activate the work of the intestines, add beets and prunes to the diet, and add wheat bran to food.
Unfortunately, with a modern woman’s caloric intake of 3,000 kcal or less, even the most balanced diet cannot provide the body with all the necessary vitamins and minerals (macro- and microelements). That is why an additional daily intake of vitamin and mineral preparations is essential.
It is better to take special preparations for pregnant and lactating women, including vitamins and minerals explicitly selected for the body of a pregnant woman and a nursing woman, taking into account the intrauterine and breastfeeding of the baby. The fact that vitamins and minerals are essential and regulators of the most essential chemical processes in metabolism is known to every person. And, of course, their role becomes even more important during pregnancy.
A new “cellular state” is being “built” in the body of the future mother, therefore, for the body of a pregnant woman, it is vital to regularly receive a complete set of all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Sometimes, the lack of vitamins and minerals can adversely affect the health of the baby.
Which vitamins are especially important and why?
Let’s list. Vitamin A is involved in the formation of the child’s visual pigments. Vitamin D and calcium are necessary for the formation of the baby’s skeletal system, preventing rickets, and strengthening bone tissue in the mother. Vitamin E is involved in the synthesis of pregnancy and lactation hormones, and is important for normal fetal growth. Vitamin C and zinc boost immunity. Folic acid is necessary for the normal formation of blood cells and preventing congenital malformations. Vitamin B1 prevents the development of toxicosis. B2 is necessary for the growth of the baby. Nicotinamide is needed for normal energy metabolism, blood circulation, and vital enzymes synthesis. Vitamins B12, B6 and iron prevent hematopoietic disorders.
Can I take any biologically active supplements (BAA) in addition to vitamin and mineral preparations? Only if a doctor prescribes them. No self-activity, no matter how practical it may seem: pills for cleansing, capsules for digestion, herbal preparations for “complexion” – leave all this for a period after the end of feeding. Please note that on the packaging of many dietary supplements and herbal remedies (especially for cleansing and weight loss) there is a warning “not recommended for pregnant and lactating women.” Concerning nutrition, even the most reasonable pregnant women, who understand everything and follow all the doctor’s prescriptions, have some difficulties.
The first problem is toxicosis of pregnant women. Correctly it is called gestosis. Well, I don’t feel like eating – and that’s it, food is disgusting. It’s okay, and toxicosis is more or less pronounced in most pregnant women. Vomited, drank some water or tea, after a while, you will eat something. Most often, nausea and vomiting in the morning, and you already want to eat (just do not eat up at night). Even if the scales show weight loss, there is no need to consume through force.
Another thing is a severe form of toxicosis and indomitable vomiting for weeks. Here, an urgent consultation and treatment under the guidance of a doctor are already needed. You cannot cope with the situation on your own. Do not resort to the excellent advice of friends and relatives without consulting an obstetrician-gynecologist.
The second problem is the unrestrained gluttony inherent in many pregnant women. This formed the basis of the vicious thesis “eating for two” and served as an excuse for systematic overeating. But how to slow them down? What to do when you want to eat, but you understand that you have eaten a lot and are already over eating? Try to relax. Think about a child. You can think about work (after all, many pregnant women do not stop their professional activities), watch a movie, read a book, prepare a dowry for a baby – but not in such a way that, in your creative fervor or pleasant pastime, you automatically absorb cookies after cookies.
The third problem is craving some unhealthy, if not wholly prohibited, product: pickles, herring, or smoked ham. The mood “I’m dying-I want-herring” is characteristic of pregnant women. In this case, it is worth making a compromise with your crying body and slightly yielding to it: eat a small piece of herring, but eat it very slowly, chewing it for a long time.
They dealt with food. But what about movements? What physical regimen should a pregnant woman choose to give birth to a healthy baby and at the same time keep fit? Of course, aerobics at a fast pace and strength exercises will have to be canceled – this is a threat of miscarriage. But doing “home” gymnastics is not only possible but also necessary – the child also needs your movements: they improve the oxygen supply and metabolism of the mother and fetus.
From sports entertainment, swimming and skiing are great for pregnant women (of course, without swimming and speed racing). You can take cold and contrast showers, do light, gentle massages, and use anti-cellulite creams during pregnancy. Wearing anti-cellulite belts and slimming pants is not worth it even in the early stages – there is no need for your baby to wear clothes with a sauna effect. But moderate retraction of the abdomen will not hurt the child, and moisturizing the stomach’s skin with creams and gels will benefit. It is necessary to protect the skin of the abdomen from overstretching, as this can lead to stretch marks that will be noticeable in the postpartum period.
If your first pregnancy, childbirth, and feeding went without damage to your figure, this does not mean that the second pregnancy will also go flawlessly. Therefore, women who give birth, not for the first time, should not relax in the belief that the subsequent pregnancy will go as well as the previous one – without consequences for the appearance. The first pregnancy proceeds typically, and it spreads to unimaginable sizes during the second or third. This may be due to the syndrome of postpartum obesity, the cause of which lies in hormonal disorders.
All pregnancies are different, which does not allow us to give specific recommendations. Serious problems a woman should discuss with a doctor. At this stage of your life path, the main task is to give birth to a healthy child. Caring for the figure must be “taken into the background.”
But then the happy moment came – you became a mother: for the first or subsequent time. How to eat during feeding (lactation)? Of course, first of all, it does not negatively affect the quality and quantity of milk. Most dietary recommendations for pregnant women are suitable for nursing (including the obligatory intake of unique vitamin-mineral complexes), but you can no longer limit yourself to liquids.
When and how to start losing weight after childbirth? In the first year after the birth of a child, the body has not yet “come to its senses” – its endocrine restructuring continues. Therefore, in the first year of a child’s life, you should not take weight loss products, even if you are not breastfeeding. But you should not be zealous in food either – this is another outdated idea that a nursing mother should eat “for herself and for that guy.” Of course, low-calorie diets are not shown to a nursing mother and not to a nursing mother either – in the first year after childbirth, and you should neither starve nor undernourish. Only fasting, as mentioned above, days are allowed.
But in the postpartum period – no matter how busy you are – it would be nice to find time for small, 10-20-minute workouts. The body, limited in movements, yearned for wide swings, running, jumping – so why not treat it? Depending on how you feel, you can start actively moving 2-4 weeks after giving birth.
Suppose that you suddenly gain weight within a year after giving birth and your figure “blurs” before your eyes. In that case, it is recommended to urgently consult an endocrinologist, as this condition can be caused by postpartum obesity syndrome. In this case, taking nutritional supplements to reduce weight and exercise is useless.